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    Floris V, Count of Holland  
Count Floris V of Holland (1254-1296), the "Keerlen God" (Peasant God), is one of the most important figures of the first, native dynasty of Holland (833-1299). His life has been documented in detail in the Rijmkroniek by Melis Stoke, his chronicler....
 
    Marco Polo, Travels to China  
Marco Polo was a Christian merchant from the Venetian Republic whose travels are recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned about trading whilst his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo,...
 
    The Fall of Baghdad, Mongol Invasions  
The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sacking of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops. The Mongols were under the comma...
 
    Osman I, Founder Ottoman Empire - 1299  
Osman I was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire. The state, while only a small principality (beylik) during Osman's lifetime, was named after him and would prevail as a world em...
 
    Shroud of Turin  
The Shroud of Turin (or Turin Shroud) is a linen cloth bearing the image of a man who appears to have suffered physical trauma in a manner consistent with crucifixion. It is kept in the royal chapel of the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist in Turin...
 
    Battle of Ain Jalut  
The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut) took place on 3 September 1260 between the Egyptian Mamluks and the Mongols in Palestine, in the Jezreel Valley, not far from Ein Harod. This battle is considered by many historians to be of great macro-historic...
 
    Meister Eckhart, German Theologian  
Meister Eckhart, German theologian and mystic. A Dominican from age 15, he studied theology at Cologne and Paris and became a popular preacher and teacher. In his mid 30s he served as vicar of Thuringia. His mystical writings examined the relationshi...
 
    Clement V, First Pope in Avignon - 1309  
Clement settled in Avignon France in 1309. Until this time all Popes had resided in Rome. Avignon would be the home of the Popes until 1378, with but one brief exception. This period at Avignon is often referred to as the "Avignon Captivity." Seated...
 
    Alfonso III of Aragon, The Liberal  
Alfonso III, called the Liberal (el Liberal) or the Free, was the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona (as Alfons II) from 1285. He conquered the Kingdom of Majorca between his succession and 1287. He was a son of Peter III of Aragon and his Quee...
 
    Dante, Writer of Divina Commedia  
Durante degli Alighieri was an Italian poet, prose writer, literary theorist, moral philosopher, and political thinker. He is best known for the monumental epic poem La commedia, later named La divina commedia (Divine Comedy), considered the greatest...
 
    Beatrice Portinari, Dante  
Beatrice Portinari, real name Bice di Folco Portinari was a woman from Florence, Italy, who was the principal inspiration for Dante Alighieri's Vita Nuova. She also appears as his guide in The Divine Comedy (La Divina Commedia) in the last book, Para...
 
    Duns Scotus, Philosopher, Theologian  
Duns Scotus is generally considered to be one of the three most important philosopher-theologians of the High Middle Ages. Scotus has had considerable influence on both Catholic and secular thought. The doctrines for which he is best known are the "u...
 
    Giotto, Italian Renaissance Painter  
Giotto was an Italian painter and architect from Florence in the late Middle Ages. He is generally considered the first in a line of great artists who contributed to the Italian Renaissance. Giotto's masterwork is the decoration of the Scrovegni C...
 
    Philip IV the Fair, King of France  
Philip IV the Fair was King of France from 1285 until his death. A member of the Capetian dynasty, Philip was born at the Palace of Fontainebleau at Seine-et-Marne, the son of King Philip III and Isabella of Aragon. Philip was nicknamed the Fair (le...
 
    William Wallace, Braveheart  
Sir William Wallace was a Scottish landowner who became one of the main leaders during the Wars of Scottish Independence. Along with Andrew Moray, Wallace defeated an English army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in September 1297, and was appoint...
 
       
 
         
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