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    The Ninety-Five Theses, Martin Luther  
The Ninety-Five Theses (original Latin: Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum) were written by Martin Luther in 1517 and are widely regarded as the initial catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. The disputation protests against cleric...
 
    John Foxe, English Historian  
John Foxe was an English historian and martyrologist, the author of what is popularly known as Foxe's Book of Martyrs, (properly The Acts and Monuments), an account of Christian martyrs throughout Western history but emphasizing the sufferings of Eng...
 
    REFORMATION  
The Protestant Reformation was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other early Protestants. Although there had been significant attempts at reform before Luther (notably those of John Wycliffe and Jan H...
 
    Tintoretto, Italian Painter  
Tintoretto was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Venetian Renaissance school. For his phenomenal energy in painting he was termed Il Furioso. His work is characterized by its muscular figures, dramatic gestures and bold use of perspect...
 
    René of Châlon, Prince of Orange  
René of Châlon was a Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Gelre. René was born in Breda, the only son of Count Henry III of Nassau-Breda and Claudia of Châlon. Claudia's brother, Philibert of Châlon, and the ancestor of m...
 
    Henry II, King of France  
Henry II was King of France from 31 March 1547, until his death in 1559. Henry was born in the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, the son of Francis I and Claude, Duchess of Brittany (daughter of Louis XII of France and Anne, Duchess...
 
    Menéndez, Founder St. Augustine, Florida  
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés was a Spanish admiral and explorer, best remembered for founding St. Augustine, Florida in 1565. This was the first successful Spanish foothold in La Florida and remained the most significant city in the region for several hu...
 
    Uluç Ali Reis, Ottoman Admiral  
Uluj Ali was a Muslim corsair of Italian origin, who converted to Islam and later became an Ottoman admiral (Reis) and Chief Admiral of the Ottoman Fleet in the 16th century. He was also known by several other names in the Christian countries of the...
 
    Catherine de' Medici, Queen of France  
Catherine de' Medici was born in Florence, Italy, as Caterina Maria Romula di Lorenzo de' Medici. Both of her parents, Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, and Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne, Countess of Boulogne, died within weeks of her birth....
 
    The Art of War, Machiavelli  
A fundamental work by one of the greatest political and military theorists of Western civilization. Voltaire said, "Machiavelli taught Europe the art of war; it had long been practiced, without being known." For Machiavelli, war was war, and victory...
 
    Catherine Howard, Henry VIII’s 5th wife  
Catherine Howard (born between 1520 and 1525; died February 13, 1542) was the fifth queen consort of Henry VIII of England (1540-1542), and sometimes known by his reference to her as "the rose without a thorn." Her birth date and place of birth is un...
 
    Christophe Plantin, Printer  
Christophe Plantin was an influential Renaissance humanist and book printer and publisher. Besides the polyglot Bible, Plantin published many other works of note, such as editions of St. Augustine and St. Jerome, the botanical works of Dodonaeus, Clu...
 
    William Cecil, Advisor of Elizabeth I  
William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley was an English statesman, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign, twice Secretary of State (1550–1553 and 1558–1572) and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. He was the founder of the Cecil dynasty wh...
 
    The Siege of Rhodes  
The Siege of Rhodes of 1522 was the second and ultimately successful attempt by the Ottoman Empire to expel the Knights of Rhodes from their island stronghold and thereby secure Ottoman control of the Eastern Mediterranean. The first siege in 1480, h...
 
    Count of Egmont  
Count Lamoral of Egmont was a Flemish general and statesman. He was Fillips II's supreme commander and achieved important victories on the French. Therefore he became appointed by Fillips II as governor of Flanders and Artesia, as a member of the Sta...
 
       
 
         
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