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180 - 242
  Ardashir I, The Unifier, Founder Sasanian Empire  
Ardashir I or Ardeshir I, also known as Ardashir the Unifier, was the founder of the Sasanian Empire. He was the ruler of Estakhr since 206, subsequently Pars Province since 222, and finally "King of Kings of Sasanian Empire" in 224 with th...
 
 
188 - 217
  Caracalla, 22nd Roman Emperor  
Caracalla, formally known as Antoninus, was a Roman emperor from AD 198 to 217. A member of the Severan Dynasty, he was the eldest son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. Caracalla reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus' d...
 
 
193 - 264
  Valerian, 40th Roman Emperor  
Valerian, also known as Valerian the Elder, was Roman Emperor from 253 to 260 AD. He was taken captive by Sassanian Persian king Shapur I after the Battle of Edessa, becoming the first Roman Emperor to be captured as a prisoner of war, caus...
 
 
204 - 249
  Philip the Arab, 33rd Roman Emperor  
Marcus Julius Philippus also known commonly by his nickname Philip the Arab, also known as Philip, was Roman Emperor from 244 to 249. He was born in present-day Syria to a Syrian father, and went on to become a major figure in the Roman Emp...
 
 
205 - 270
  Plotinus, Father of Neoplatonism  
Plotinus was a major philosopher in the ancient world and is widely considered the father of Neoplatonism. Much of our biographical information about him comes from Porphyry's preface to his edition of Plotinus' Enneads. His metaphysical wr...
 
 
214 - 275
  Aurelian, 44th Roman Emperor  
Aurelian was the 44th Emperor of the Roman Empire from 270 to 275. Born in humble circumstances, he rose through the military ranks to become emperor. During his reign, he defeated the Alamanni after a devastating war. He also defeated the...
 
 
216 - 274
  Mani, Prophet and Founder of Manichaeism  
Mani was the prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity which was once widespread but is now extinct. Mani was born in or near Seleucia-Ctesiphon in Parthian Babylonia, at the time still part of the Parthia...
 
 
240 - 270
  Shapur I the Great, King Sasanian Empire  
Shapur I the Great was the second shahanshah (king of kings) of the Sasanian Empire. The dates of his reign are commonly given as 240/42 270/72, but it is likely that he also reigned as co-regent (together with his father) prior to his fa...
 
 
240 - 275
  Zenobia, Queen Palmyrene Empire  
Zenobia was a 3rd-century Queen of the Palmyrene Empire in Syria, who led a famous revolt against the Roman Empire. The second wife of King Septimius Odaenathus, Zenobia became queen of the Palmyrene Empire following Odaenathus' death in 26...
 
 
244 - 311
  Diocletian, 51st Roman Emperor  
Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus was Roman Emperor from 20 November 284 to 1 May 305. Diocletian was one of the few emperors of the third and fourth centuries to die naturally, and the first in the history of the empire to retire volunt...
 
 
250 - 306
  Constantius Chlorus, Father of Constantine the Great  
Constantius I, commonly known as Constantius Chlorus, was Caesar, a form of Roman co-emperor, from 293 to 306. He was the father of Constantine the Great and founder of the Constantinian dynasty. As Caesar, he defeated the usurper Allect...
 
 
256 - 287
  Saint Sebastian, Persecution of Christians  
Saint Sebastian was an early Christian saint and martyr. According to Christian belief, he was killed during the Roman emperor Diocletian's persecution of Christians. He is commonly depicted in art and literature tied to a post or tree and...
 
 
256 - 336
  Arius, Father of Arianism  
Arius was an ascetic Christian presbyter of Libyan origins, and priest in Alexandria, Egypt, of the church of Baucalis. His teachings about the nature of the Godhead, which emphasized the Father's divinity over the Son, and his opposition t...
 
 
263 - 339
  Eusebius, Father of Church History  
Eusebius of Caesarea was a bishop of Caesarea in Palaestina and is often referred to as the father of Church history because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian church and forging unity among proto-orthodox advocates...
 
    The Goths, Invasions of the Roman Empire  
The Goths were an East Germanic tribe which according to their own traditions originated in Scandinavia (specifically Götaland and Gotland). They migrated southwards and conquered parts of the Roman empire. A force of Goths launched one...
 
       
 
         
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