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    Johannes Zukertort, Polish Chess Master  
Johannes Hermann Zukertort was a leading Polish chess master. He was one of the leading world players for most of the 1870s and 1880s, and lost to Wilhelm Steinitz in the World Chess Championship 1886, generally regarded as the first World...
 
    Mary MacKillop, 1st Australian Saint  
Mary MacKillop also known as Saint Mary of the Cross, was an Australian Roman Catholic nun who, together with Father Julian Tenison Woods, founded the Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart and a number of schools and welfare institutions...
 
    Karl May, Winnetou & Old Shatterhand  
Karl Friedrich May was a popular German writer, noted mainly for adventure novels set in the American Old West, (best known for the characters of Winnetou and Old Shatterhand) and similar books set in the Orient and Middle East (with Kara B...
 
    Abdul Hamid II, 34th Ottoman Sultan  
Abdul Hamid II was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He oversaw a period of decline in the power and extent of the Empire, ruling from 31 August 1876 until he was deposed on 27 April 1909. Abdülhamid II was the last Ottoman Sultan to r...
 
    James Dewar, Invention Thermos Flask  
Sir James Dewar was a Scottish chemist and physicist. He is probably best-known today for his invention of the Dewar flask, which he used in conjunction with extensive research into the liquefaction of gases. He was also particularly intere...
 
    William McKinley, 25th US President, 1897-1901  
William McKinley, Jr. was the twenty-fifth President of the United States (1897-1901), and the last veteran of the American Civil War to be elected. By the 1880s, this Ohio native was a nationally known Republican leader; his signature issu...
 
    Edvard Grieg, Norwegian Composer  
Edvard Hagerup Grieg was a Norwegian composer and pianist who composed in the romantic period. He is best known for his Piano Concerto in A minor, for his incidental music to Henrik Ibsen's play Peer Gynt (which includes In the Hall of the...
 
    Robert Koch, Found Tuberculosis Bacillus  
Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch was a German physician and microbiologist. As the founder of modern bacteriology, he identified the specific causative agents of tuberculosis, cholera, and anthrax and gave experimental support for the concept o...
 
    Bertha von Suttner, Pacifist  
Baroness Bertha von Suttner, Gräfin (Countess) Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau was an Austrian novelist, radical (organizational) pacifist, and the first woman to be a Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Suttner became a leading figure in the pea...
 
    The Three Musketeers, Dumas  
The Three Musketeers is the most famous of Alexandre Dumasís historical novels and one of the most popular adventure novels ever written. Dumasís swashbuckling epic chronicles the adventures of díArtagnan, a brash young man from the country...
 
    The Count of Monte Cristo, Dumas  
The Count of Monte Cristo is one of the greatest novels of all time and in fact stands at the fountainhead of the entire stream of popular adventure-fiction. Dumas himself was one of the founders of the genre. The cold, brooding, vampiric C...
 
    Saint Bernadette of Lourdes  
Bernadette Soubirous was the firstborn daughter of a miller from Lourdes (Lorda in Occitan), France, and is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church. Soubirous is best known for the Marian apparitions of a "young lady" who asked for a...
 
    Muhammad Ahmad, Fall of Khartoum - 1885  
Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah was a religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, on June 29, 1881, proclaimed himself as the Mahdi or messianic redeemer of the Islamic faith. From his announcement of the Mahdiyya in June 1881 until...
 
    Friedrich Nietzsche, God is Dead  
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a German philologist, philosopher, cultural critic, poet and composer. He wrote several critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy and science, displaying a fondness for metaphor,...
 
    Ludwig Boltzmann, Physicist  
Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann was an Austrian physicist famous for his founding contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics. He was one of the most important advocates for atomic theory at a time when that...
 
       
 
         
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