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    Lombroso, Italian Criminologist  
Cesare Lombroso was an Italian criminologist and physician, founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology. Lombroso rejected the established Classical School, which held that crime was a characteristic trait of human nature. Inste...
 
    Sitting Bull, Dakota Sioux Leader  
Sitting Bull, Hunkpapa Sioux Leader and Medicine Man, born about 1837. He was the principal chief of the Dakota Sioux, who were driven from their reservation in the Black Hills by miners in 1876, and took up arms against the whites and fri...
 
    John Muir, Father of the National Parks  
John Muir was a Scottish-American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States. His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada mountains of Ca...
 
    Clemenceau, Prime Minister of France  
Georges Benjamin Clemenceau was a French statesman, physician and journalist. He served as the Prime Minister of France from 1906 to 1908, and again from 1916 to 1920. For nearly the final year of World War I he led France, and was one of t...
 
    Robert Koch, Found Tuberculosis Bacillus  
Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch was a German physician and microbiologist. As the founder of modern bacteriology, he identified the specific causative agents of tuberculosis, cholera, and anthrax and gave experimental support for the concept o...
 
    Hugo de Vries, Concept of Genes  
Hugo Marie de Vries was a Dutch botanist and one of the first geneticists. He is known chiefly for suggesting the concept of genes, rediscovering the laws of heredity in the 1890s while unaware of Gregor Mendel's work, for introducing the t...
 
    Ivan Pavlov, Russian Physician  
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning. From his childhood days Pavlov demonstrated intellectual curiosity along with an unusual energy which he referred to as "the instinc...
 
    D. E. Salmon, Salmonella Bacteria  
Daniel Elmer Salmon was a veterinary surgeon. He earned the first D.V.M. degree awarded in the United States, and spent his career studying animal diseases for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. He gave his name to the Salmonella genus of...
 
    Santiago y Cajal, Neuroscientist  
Santiago Ramón y Cajal was a Spanish histologist, psycologist, and Nobel laureate. His pioneering investigations of the microscopic invention of the brain were so original that he was considered by many to be the greatest neuroscientists o...
 
    Sergei Korsakoff, Neuropsychiatrist  
Sergei Sergeievich Korsakoff was the first of great Russian neuropsychiatrists. Apart from his studies on alcoholic psychosis, he introduced the concept of paranoia and wrote an excellent textbook on psychiatry. Korsakoff studied the effec...
 
    Aletta Jacobs, 1st Dutch Female Student  
Aletta Jacobs was the first woman in Dutch history to be officially admitted to university. This took place in 1871. As a schoolgirl she had written a letter to Prime Minister Thorbecke requesting permission to be allowed to attend “academi...
 
    Sigmund Freud, Father of Psychoanalysis  
Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis. In creating psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst, Freud...
 
    Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Tourette Syndrome  
Georges Albert Édouard Brutus Gilles de la Tourette was a French physician and the eponym of Tourette syndrome, a neurological condition. He could be retrospectively classified as a neurologist, but the field did not exist in his time. T...
 
    Origin of Species, Darwin  
It's hard to talk about The Origin of Species without making statements that seem overwrought and fulsome. But it's true: this is indeed one of the most important and influential books ever written, and it is one of the very few groundbreak...
 
    Man's Place in Nature, Huxley  
Darwin said it first, but Huxley said it best. Known as "Darwin's bulldog" for his tenacious and successful defense of evolution by natural selection, biologist T.H. Huxley wrote Man's Place in Nature to bolster his case with hard facts. Th...
 
       
 
         
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