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    The Mongol Empire   The Mongol Empire
The Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous empire in world history and for some time was the most feared in Eurasia. It was the product of Mongol unification and Mongol invasions, which began with Temujin being proclaimed ruler in 1206, eventually...
 
    John XXII, Pope in Avignon - 1316   John XXII, Pope in Avignon - 1316
Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was pope from 1316 to 1334. He was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. He studied medicine in Montpellier and law in Paris. The two-year gap (sede vacante) between the death of Pope Clement V in 1314 and...
 
    Marco Polo, Travels to China   Marco Polo, Travels to China
Marco Polo was a Christian merchant from the Venetian Republic whose travels are recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned about trading whilst his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo,...
 
    Osman I, Founder Ottoman Empire - 1299   Osman I, Founder Ottoman Empire - 1299
Osman I was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire. The state, while only a small principality (beylik) during Osman's lifetime, was named after him and would prevail as a world em...
 
    Shroud of Turin   Shroud of Turin
The Shroud of Turin (or Turin Shroud) is a linen cloth bearing the image of a man who appears to have suffered physical trauma in a manner consistent with crucifixion. It is kept in the royal chapel of the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist in Turin...
 
    Dante, Writer of Divina Commedia   Dante, Writer of Divina Commedia
Durante degli Alighieri was an Italian poet, prose writer, literary theorist, moral philosopher, and political thinker. He is best known for the monumental epic poem La commedia, later named La divina commedia (Divine Comedy), considered the greatest...
 
    Giotto   Giotto
Giotto has become the symbol of a profound renewal in the history of Western figurative arts, and of the first radical renewal since ancient Greece. "He converted the art of painting from Greek to Latin and brought in the modern era" - this is Cennin...
 
    Philip IV the Fair, King of France   Philip IV the Fair, King of France
Philip IV the Fair was King of France from 1285 until his death. A member of the Capetian dynasty, Philip was born at the Palace of Fontainebleau at Seine-et-Marne, the son of King Philip III and Isabella of Aragon. Philip was nicknamed the Fair (le...
 
    William Wallace, Braveheart   William Wallace, Braveheart
Sir William Wallace is considered one of Scotland's greatest heroes, thanks to his opposition to English rule under Edward I in the 13th century. The son of a minor Scottish lord, Wallace was educated and rebellious. Named an outlaw for killing an En...
 
    Robert the Bruce, Robert I King of Scotland   Robert the Bruce, Robert I King of Scotland
Scottish King Robert I, known as Robert the Bruce. Though he had sworn allegiance to Edward I of England in 1296, a year later he switched sides, fighting for Scotland's independence. He was crowned King of Scots at Scone in 1306, though Scotland had...
 
    Marsilius of Padua, Italian Scholar   Marsilius of Padua, Italian Scholar
Marsilius of Padua was an Italian scholar, trained in medicine who practiced a variety of professions. He was also an important 14th century political figure. His political treatise Defensor pacis is seen by some authorities as the most revolutionary...
 
    Mansa Musa I, Emperor of Mali Empire   Mansa Musa I, Emperor of Mali Empire
Musa I was the tenth Mansa, which translates as "King of Kings" or "Emperor", of the wealthy Mali Empire. At the time of Mansa Musa's rise to the throne, the Malian Empire consisted of territory formerly belonging to the Ghana Empire and Melle (Mali)...
 
    Orhan I, 2nd Ottoman Bey or Sultan   Orhan I, 2nd Ottoman Bey or Sultan
Orhan I or Orhan Bey was the second bey of the nascent Ottoman Empire (then known as the Ottoman Beylik or Emirate) from 1326 to 1359. He was the son of Osman I and Malhun Hatun, the daughter of Abdulaziz Bey. In the early stages of his reign, Orh...
 
    Edward II of England   Edward II of England
Edward II, called Edward of Carnarvon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327. He was the seventh Plantagenet king, in a line that began with the reign of Henry II. Interspersed between the strong reigns of his father Edwa...
 
    Afonso IV of Portugal   Afonso IV of Portugal
Afonso IV, King of Portugal, known as the Brave, was the seventh king of Portugal and Algarve from 1325 until his death. He was the only legitimate son of Dinis of Portugal by his wife Elizabeth. As king, Afonso IV is remembered as a soldier and a va...
 
       
         



 
 
         
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