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    Louis IX or Saint Louis, King of France  
Louis IX, commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. He inherited the throne at age 12. His mother served as regent until 1234, helping to subdue rebellious barons and Albigensian heretics (Cathari). Louis led a Cru...
 
    Kublai Khan, Founder Yuan Dynasty  
Kublai Khan was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Ikh Mongol Uls (Mongol Empire), reigning from 1260 to 1294, and the founder of the Yuan Dynasty, a division of the Mongol Empire. Kublai was the fourth son of Tolui and a grandson of G...
 
    Hulagu Khan, Mongol Ruler  
Hulagu Khan was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. Son of Tolui and the Kerait princess Sorghaghtani Beki, he was a grandson of Genghis Khan, and the brother of Arik Boke, Möngke Khan and Kublai Khan. Hulagu's army greatly...
 
    Rudolf I, Founder Habsburg Dynasty  
Rudolf I, First German king (1273 91) of the Habsburg dynasty. He inherited lands in Alsace, the Aargau, and Breisgau and extended his territory by marriage and through negotiation. Crowned king in 1273, he was recognized by Pope Gregory...
 
    Alfonso X of Castile, El Sabio, The Wise  
Alfonso X, called the Wise (Spanish: el Sabio), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death. During the Imperial election of 1257, a dissident faction chose him to be King of the Romans (Latin: Rex Romanorum;...
 
    Charles of Anjou, King of Napels & Sicily  
Charles I, commonly called Charles of Anjou, was the King of Sicily by conquest from 1266 (though he had received it as a papal grant in 1262), though he was expelled from the island in the aftermath of the Sicilian Vespers of 1282. Thereaf...
 
    Peter III, The Great, King of Aragon and Sicily  
Peter the Great was the King of Aragon (as Peter III) and Valencia (as Peter I) and Count of Barcelona (as Peter II) from 1276 to his death. He conquered Sicily and became its king in 1282. He was one of the greatest of medieval Aragonese m...
 
    King Edward I of England, Longshanks  
Edward I, popularly known as "Longshanks" because of his 6 foot 2 inch (1.88 m) frame and the "Hammer of the Scots" (his tombstone, in Latin, read, Hic est Edwardus Primus Scottorum Malleus, "Here is Edward I, Hammer of the Scots"), achieve...
 
    Conradin, Last of the Hohenstaufen  
Conrad, called the Younger or the Boy, but usually known by the diminutive Conradin, was the Duke of Swabia (12541268, as Conrad IV), King of Jerusalem (12541268, as Conrad III), and King of Sicily (12541258, de jure until 1268, as Conra...
 
    Floris V, Count of Holland  
Count Floris V of Holland (1254-1296), the "Keerlen God" (Peasant God), is one of the most important figures of the first, native dynasty of Holland (833-1299). His life has been documented in detail in the Rijmkroniek by Melis Stoke, his c...
 
    Osman I, Founder Ottoman Empire - 1299  
Osman I was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire. The state, while only a small principality (beylik) during Osman's lifetime, was named after him and would prevail as...
 
    Philip IV the Fair, King of France  
Philip IV the Fair was King of France from 1285 until his death. A member of the Capetian dynasty, Philip was born at the Palace of Fontainebleau at Seine-et-Marne, the son of King Philip III and Isabella of Aragon. Philip was nicknamed the...
 
    Robert the Bruce, Robert I King of Scotland  
Scottish King Robert I, known as Robert the Bruce. Though he had sworn allegiance to Edward I of England in 1296, a year later he switched sides, fighting for Scotland's independence. He was crowned King of Scots at Scone in 1306, though Sc...
 
    Mansa Musa I, Emperor of Mali Empire  
Musa I was the tenth Mansa, which translates as "King of Kings" or "Emperor", of the wealthy Mali Empire. At the time of Mansa Musa's rise to the throne, the Malian Empire consisted of territory formerly belonging to the Ghana Empire and Me...
 
    Orhan I, 2nd Ottoman Bey or Sultan  
Orhan I or Orhan Bey was the second bey of the nascent Ottoman Empire (then known as the Ottoman Beylik or Emirate) from 1326 to 1359. He was the son of Osman I and Malhun Hatun, the daughter of Abdulaziz Bey. In the early stages of his...
 
       
 
         
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