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    Stuyvesant, Governor New York - 1646  
Peter Stuyvesant served as the last Dutch director-general of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664, after which it was renamed New York. He was a major figure in the early history of...
 
    Adriaen van Ostade, Dutch Painter  
Adriaen van Ostade was a Dutch Golden Age painter of genre works. He and his brother were pupils of Frans Hals and like him, spent most of their lives in Haarlem. In 1662 and again in 1663 he is registered as deacon of the St. Luke guild...
 
    D'Artagnan, The Three Musketeers  
Charles Ogier de Batz de Castelmore, Comte d'Artagnan served Louis XIV as captain of the Musketeers of the Guard and died at the Siege of Maastricht in the Franco-Dutch War. A fictionalized account of his life by Gatien de Courtilz de Sandr...
 
    Pope Innocent XI  
Pope Innocent XI, born Benedetto Odescalchi, was Pope from 1676 to 1689. Odescalchi was a strong papal candidate after the death of Pope Clement IX (1667–69) in 1669, but the French government rejected him. After Pope Clement X (1670–76) di...
 
    Bartholomeus van der Helst, Dutch Painter  
Bartholomeus van der Helst was a Dutch portrait painter. In Amsterdam Van der Helst was a contemporary of Rembrandt. He soon became the most popular painter of portraits in that city, his flattering portrayals in the style of Anthony van Dy...
 
    Gerrit Dou, Painter  
Gerrit Dou, also known as Gerard and Douw or Dow, was a Dutch Golden Age painter, whose small, highly-polished paintings are typical of the Leiden fijnschilders. He specialised in genre scenes and is noted for his trompe l'oeil "niche" pain...
 
    François de La Rochefoucauld, Writer  
François VI, duc de La Rochefoucauld, le Prince de Marcillac, was a noted French author of maxims and memoirs, as well as an example of the accomplished 17th-century nobleman. He was born in Paris in the Rue des Petits Champs, at a time whe...
 
    André Le Nôtre, Landscape Architect of Versailles  
André Le Nôtre (or Le Nostre) was a French landscape architect and the principal gardener of King Louis XIV of France. Most notably, he was the landscape architect who designed the park of the Palace of Versailles, and his work represents t...
 
    John Wilkins, Co-founder Royal Society  
John Wilkins was an English clergyman, natural philosopher and author, as well as one of the founders of the Royal Society. He was Bishop of Chester from 1668 until his death. Wilkins is one of the few persons to have headed a college at...
 
    Govert Flinck, Dutch Golden Age Painter  
Govert (or Govaert) Teuniszoon Flinck was a Dutch painter of the Dutch Golden Age. Flinck was acknowledged as one of Rembrandt's best pupils. For many years Flinck laboured on the lines of Rembrandt, following that master's style in all...
 
    Nicolas Fouquet, Fell out of favor with Louis XIV  
Nicolas Fouquet, marquis de Belle-Île, vicomte de Melun et Vaux was the Superintendent of Finances in France from 1653 until 1661 under King Louis XIV. He fell out of favor with the young king, probably because of his extravagant displays o...
 
    Johann Jakob Froberger, Baroque Composer  
Johann Jakob Froberger was a German Baroque composer, keyboard virtuoso, and organist. He was among the most famous composers of the era and influenced practically every major composer in Europe by developing the genre of keyboard suite and...
 
    Ferdinand Bol, Dutch Painter  
Ferdinand Bol was a Dutch artist, etcher, and draftsman. Although his surviving work is rare, it displays Rembrandt's influence; like his master, Bol favored historical subjects, portraits, numerous self-portraits, and single figures in exo...
 
    John Wallis, Symbol for Infinity  
John Wallis was an English mathematician who is given partial credit for the development of infinitesimal calculus. Between 1643 and 1689 he served as chief cryptographer for Parliament and, later, the royal court. He is also credited with...
 
    The Thirty Years' War  
The Thirty Years' War was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts, as well as the deadliest European religious war, in history. It took place in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648 and resulted in eight million casualties. Ini...
 
       
 
         
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