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Prince Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, was one of the most prominent European aristocrats and statesmen of the nineteenth century. As Prime Minister of Prussia from 1862 to 1890, he engineered the unification of the numerous states of Germany. Thereafter, he served as the first Chancellor of the united German Empire from 1871 to 1890; he is nicknamed the Iron Chancellor.

A Junker, Bismarck held deep monarchist, aristocratic and Prussian nationalist views. His most significant policy objective was that of securing German unification; he took advantage of skilful diplomacy and a series of wars to achieve this goal. Bismarck, a conservative, combated the growing liberal and socialist movements, outlawing several organisations and denying freedom of the press. In order to satisfy the working class, however, he enacted many social reforms; for instance, he instituted publicly funded health and accident insurance, as well as pensions for the elderly and infirm. In foreign affairs, Bismarck pursued the creation of a German colonial empire, and of securing the German Empire's position by maintaining peace in Europe.

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Prince Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, was one of the most prominent European aristocrats and statesmen of the nineteenth century. As Prime Minister of Prussia from 1862 to 1890, he engineered the unification of the numerous states of Germany. Thereafter, he served as the first Chancellor of the united German Empire from 1871 to 1890; he is nicknamed the Iron Chancellor.

A Junker, Bismarck held deep monarchist, aristocratic and Prussian nationalist views. His most significant policy objective was that of securing German unification; he took advantage of skilful diplomacy and a series of wars to achieve this goal. Bismarck, a conservative, combated the growing liberal and socialist movements, outlawing several organisations and denying freedom of the press. In order to satisfy the working class, however, he enacted many social reforms; for instance, he instituted publicly funded health and accident insurance, as well as pensions for the elderly and infirm. In foreign affairs, Bismarck pursued the creation of a German colonial empire, and of securing the German Empire's position by maintaining peace in Europe. More...

 
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