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John XIX (born ? in Rome, died October 1032), was Pope from 1024 to 1032. He succeeded his brother, Pope Benedict VIII (101224), both being members of the powerful house of Tusculum. When elected Pope John XIX he was an unordained layman. Therefore, he was ordained a bishop in order to enable him to ascend the papal chair, having previously been a consul and senator. Against the grain of ecclesiastical history, John XIX agreed, upon being paid with a large bribe, to grant to the Patriarch of Constantinople the title of an ecumenical bishop. However, this proposal excited general indignation throughout the Church, thus compelling him almost immediately to withdraw from his agreement.

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John XIX (born ? in Rome, died October 1032), was Pope from 1024 to 1032. He succeeded his brother, Pope Benedict VIII (101224), both being members of the powerful house of Tusculum. When elected Pope John XIX he was an unordained layman. Therefore, he was ordained a bishop in order to enable him to ascend the papal chair, having previously been a consul and senator. Against the grain of ecclesiastical history, John XIX agreed, upon being paid with a large bribe, to grant to the Patriarch of Constantinople the title of an ecumenical bishop. However, this proposal excited general indignation throughout the Church, thus compelling him almost immediately to withdraw from his agreement. More...

 
    Guido d'Arezzo, Iventor Musical Notation
  Guido d'Arezzo, Iventor Musical Notation
Guido of Arezzo (991/992 after 1033) was a music theorist of the Medieval era. He is regarded as the inventor of modern musical notation (staff notation) that replaced neumatic notation; his text, the Micrologus, was the second-most-widely distribu...
 
       
 
         
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