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The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilisation, characterised by an autocratic form of government, headed by an Emperor, and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia Minor. The 500 year old republic which preceded it had been severely destabilised through a series of civil wars and political infighting in the Senate. Several events marked the transition of power from the Roman Senate to an autocratic Emperor. Julius Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator in 44 BC after his victory over Pompey resulted in his assassination, triggering a power vacuum that led to a succession of conflicts between supporters of Caesar and the Senate. Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC after inheriting Caesar's estates. Following Antony and Cleopatra's suicides and the annexation of the Ptolemaic Empire in 30 BC, the Roman Senate granted the honorific title Augustus to Octavian three years later in 27 BC, effectively bringing about the end of the Roman Republic.

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The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilisation, characterised by an autocratic form of government, headed by an Emperor, and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia Minor. The 500 year old republic which preceded it had been severely destabilised through a series of civil wars and political infighting in the Senate. Several events marked the transition of power from the Roman Senate to an autocratic Emperor. Julius Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator in 44 BC after his victory over Pompey resulted in his assassination, triggering a power vacuum that led to a succession of conflicts between supporters of Caesar and the Senate. Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC after inheriting Caesar's estates. Following Antony and Cleopatra's suicides and the annexation of the Ptolemaic Empire in 30 BC, the Roman Senate granted the honorific title Augustus to Octavian three years later in 27 BC, effectively bringing about the end of the Roman Republic. More

 
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  HELLENISTIC PERIOD
The Hellenistic period is the period of ancient Greek and eastern Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest...
 
    Sulla, Roman General
  Sulla, Roman General
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix or simply Sulla, was a Roman general and politician, holding the office of consul twice as well as the dictatorship. Sulla's dictatorship came during a high point in the struggle between optimates and populares, the forme...
 
    Mithridates VI of Pontus
  Mithridates VI of Pontus
Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI, also known as Mithridates the Great (Megas) and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia (now in Turkey) from about 119 to 63 BC. Mithridates was a king of Persian origin, and cla...
 
    Crassus, Roman General
  Crassus, Roman General
Marcus Licinius Crassus was a Roman general and politician who commanded Sulla's decisive victory at Colline gate, suppressed the slave revolt led by Spartacus and entered into a secret pact, known as the First Triumvirate, with Gnaeus Pompeius Magnu...
 
    Cicero, Roman Philosopher
  Cicero, Roman Philosopher
Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul and constitutionalist. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and is widely considered one of Rome's greatest orator...
 
    Pompey, Rival of Julius Caesar
  Pompey, Rival of Julius Caesar
Pompey (the Great), was a distinguished and ambitious Roman military leader, provincial administrator and politician of the 1st century BC, the period of the Late Republic. Hailing from an Italian provincial background, Pompey first distinguished him...
 
    Julius Caesar, Rise of the Roman Empire
  Julius Caesar, Rise of the Roman Empire
Gaius Julius Caesar is remembered as one of history's greatest generals and a key ruler of the Roman empire. As a young man he rose through the administrative ranks of the Roman republic, accumulating power until he was elected consul in 59 B.C. Over...
 
    Lucretius, Roman Poet & Philosopher
  Lucretius, Roman Poet & Philosopher
Titus Lucretius Carus was a Roman poet and philosopher. His only known work is the epic philosophical poem on Epicureanism De rerum natura, translated into English as On the Nature of Things or "On the Nature of the Universe". According to Lucretius'...
 
    Marc Antony, General of Julius Caesar
  Marc Antony, General of Julius Caesar
Marcus Antonius, commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire. Antony was an important suppor...
 
    Vercingetorix, Gallic Warrior defied Rome
  Vercingetorix, Gallic Warrior defied Rome
Vercingetorix was the chieftain of the Arverni tribe known as the man who united the Gauls in an ultimately unsuccessful revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars. Vercingetorix came to power in 52 BC, when he r...
 
    Herod the Great, King of Israel
  Herod the Great, King of Israel
Herod, also known as Herod I or Herod the Great, was a Roman client king of Israel. He was (descended from converts to Judaism) serving as a servant first. Described as A madman who murdered his own family and a great many rabbis. He is commonly conf...
 
    Virgil, Roman Poet
  Virgil, Roman Poet
Publius Vergilius Maro, usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He is known for three major works of Latin literature, the Eclogues (or Bucolics), the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. A number of mi...
 
    Cleopatra VII, the Last Pharaoh
  Cleopatra VII, the Last Pharaoh
Cleopatra was the last active pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt, briefly survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion. After her reign, Egypt became a province of the recently established Roman Empire. Cleopatra was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, a famil...
 
    Augustus, (Octavius) 1st Roman Emperor
  Augustus, (Octavius) 1st Roman Emperor
Emperor Augustus of Rome was born with the given name Gaius Octavius on September 23, 63 B.C. He took the name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Octavian) in 44 B.C. after the murder of his great uncle, Julius Caesar. In his will Caesar had adopted Oct...
 
    Strabo, Greek Historian
  Strabo, Greek Historian
Strabo was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. Strabo is mostly famous for his 17-volume work Geographica, which presented a descriptive history of people and places from different regions of the world known to his era. Although the Geogra...
 
    Livy, Roman Historian
  Livy, Roman Historian
Titus Livius or Livy, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, Ab Urbe Condita Libri, "Chapters from the Foundation of the City," covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome well before the traditio...
 
    The Julian Calendar
  The Julian Calendar
The Julian calendar was introduced by Julius Caesar in 45 BC. It was in common use until the 1500s, when countries started changing to the Gregorian Calendar. However, some countries (for example, Greece and Russia) used it into this century, and the...
 
    Ovidius, Roman Poet
  Ovidius, Roman Poet
Publius Ovidius Naso, known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet best known for the Metamorphoses, a 15-book continuous mythological narrative written in the meter of epic, and for collections of love poetry in elegiac couplets, es...
 
    Tiberius, 2nd Roman Emperor
  Tiberius, 2nd Roman Emperor
Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (or Tiberius I), was the second Roman Emperor, from the death of Augustus in AD 14 until his own death in 37. Tiberius was one of Rome's greatest generals, whose campaigns in Pannonia, Illyricum, Rhaetia and Germania l...
 
    Battle of Actium, Begin of the Roman Empire
  Battle of Actium, Begin of the Roman Empire
The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic. It was fought between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra. The battle took place on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian S...
 
    Virgin Mary, Mother of Jesus
  Virgin Mary, Mother of Jesus
Mary of Nazareth often referred to by Christians as the Virgin Mary or Saint Mary, was a Jewish woman of Nazareth in Galilee, identified in the New Testament as the mother of Jesus Christ. Muslims also refer to her as the Virgin Mary or Syeda Mariam,...
 
    Arminius, Victory at the Teutoburg Forest - AD 9
  Arminius, Victory at the Teutoburg Forest - AD 9
Arminius also known as Armin or Hermann, was a chieftain of the Germanic Cherusci who defeated a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Arminius's influence held an allied coalition of Germanic tribes together in opposition to the Romans b...
 
    Germanicus, Defeated Arminius - AD 16
  Germanicus, Defeated Arminius - AD 16
Germanicus was a successful and popular Roman general who avenged the defeat sustained by Varus in ad 9, defeating Arminius (Hermann) at Idistaviso on the Weser in ad 16, but was recalled for failing to exploit his success. On his return to Rome in a...
 
    Claudius, 4th Roman Emperor
  Claudius, 4th Roman Emperor
Claudius was Roman emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul, the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy. Because he was afflicted with a limp and...
 
    Jesus Christ, of Nazareth
  Jesus Christ, of Nazareth
Jesus (64 BC to 3033 AD), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus of Galilee, is the central figure of Christianity, whom the teachings of most Christian denominations hold to be the Son of God. Christianity regards Jesus as the awaited Mes...
 
    Saint Paul, The Apostle
  Saint Paul, The Apostle
Paul the Apostle, original name Saul of Tarsus, was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world. He is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age. In t...
 
    Saint Peter, Prince of the Apostles
  Saint Peter, Prince of the Apostles
Saint Peter (died c. 64 AD), also known as Simon Peter, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Church. The Roman Catholic Church considers him to be the first pope, ordained by J...
 
    Mary Magdalene, Disciple of Jesus
  Mary Magdalene, Disciple of Jesus
Mary Magdalene is described, both in the canonical New Testament and in the New Testament apocrypha, as a devoted disciple of Jesus. She is considered by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglican churches to be a saint, with a feast day of J...
 
    Seneca the Younger, Philosopher
  Seneca the Younger, Philosopher
Lucius Annaeus Seneca was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature. He was tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero. While he was later forced to commit suicide for alleged compli...
 
    Galba, 6th Roman Emperor
  Galba, 6th Roman Emperor
Servius Sulpicius Galba, also called, was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. He was the first emperor of the Year of the Four Emperors. Galba's primary concern during his brief reign was in restoring state finances, and to this end he...
 
 
9 - 79
  Vespasian, 9th Roman Emperor
  Vespasian, 9th Roman Emperor
Titus Flavius Vespasianus was the ninth Roman Emperor, who reigned from 69 AD until his death in 79 AD. Vespasian was the founder of the short-lived Flavian dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 AD and 96 AD. He was succeeded by his sons T...
 
    Caligula, 3rd Roman Emperor
  Caligula, 3rd Roman Emperor
Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, more commonly known by his nickname Caligula, was the 3rd Roman Emperor who reigned from 16 March 37 until his assassination on 24 January 41. Caligula was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty which descende...
 
    Nero, 5th Roman Emperor
  Nero, 5th Roman Emperor
Nero was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and succeeded to the throne in 54 following Claudius' death. In 64 AD, most of Rome wa...
 
    Flavius Josephus, Historian
  Flavius Josephus, Historian
Flavius Josephus was a jewish priest, scholar, and historian. Born of a priestly family, Josephus joined the Pharisees. While on a diplomatic mission he was impressed by the culture and sophistication of Rome, and in the Jewish revolt of AD 66 70 h...
 
    Domitian, 11th Roman Emperor
  Domitian, 11th Roman Emperor
Domitian was Roman Emperor from 81 to 96. Domitian was the third and last emperor of the Flavian dynasty. Domitian's youth and early career were largely spent in the shadow of his brother Titus, who gained military renown during the First Jewish-Roma...
 
    Tacitus, Roman Historian
  Tacitus, Roman Historian
One of the greatest historians of ancient Rome, Cornelius Tacitus is a primary source for much of what is known about life the first and second centuries after the life of Jesus. His most famous works, Histories and Annals, exist in fragmentary form,...
 
    Destruction of the 2nd Temple at Jerusalem
  Destruction of the 2nd Temple at Jerusalem
In the year 66 AD the Jews of Judea rebelled against their Roman masters. In response, the Emperor Nero dispatched an army under the generalship of Vespasian to restore order. By the year 68, resistance in the northern part of the province had been e...
 
    Hadrian, 14th Roman Emperor
  Hadrian, 14th Roman Emperor
Hadrian was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. In Latin, the full imperial title of Hadrian was also rendered as Tito Ael Hadriano, just as it appears in ancient epigraphic records. He re-built the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. H...
 
    Ptolemy, Astronomer / Mathematician
  Ptolemy, Astronomer / Mathematician
Claudius Ptolemy was a Greco-Egyptian writer of Alexandria, known as a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in...
 
    Marcus Aurelius, 16th Roman Emperor
  Marcus Aurelius, 16th Roman Emperor
Marcus Antoninus the Philosopher, Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. It is this quality of Marcus' character which has made him a unique figure in Roman history, since he was the only emperor whose life was molded by, and devoted to, philoso...
 
    Hadrian's Wall
  Hadrian's Wall
One of the greatest monuments to the power - and limitations - of the Roman Empire, Hadrian's Wall ran for 73 miles across open country. By the time Hadrian became Emperor in 117 AD the Roman Empire had ceased to expand. Hadrian was concerned t...
 
    Commodus, 18th Roman Emperor
  Commodus, 18th Roman Emperor
Commodus was Roman Emperor from 180 to 192. He also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180. His name changed throughout his reign; see changes of name for earlier and later forms. His accession as...
 
    Diocletian, 51st Roman Emperor
  Diocletian, 51st Roman Emperor
Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus was Roman Emperor from 20 November 284 to 1 May 305. Diocletian was one of the few emperors of the third and fourth centuries to die naturally, and the first in the history of the empire to retire voluntarily. Onc...
 
    Arius, Father of Arianism
  Arius, Father of Arianism
Arius was an ascetic Christian presbyter of Libyan origins, and priest in Alexandria, Egypt, of the church of Baucalis. His teachings about the nature of the Godhead, which emphasized the Father's divinity over the Son, and his opposition to Homoousi...
 
    The Goths, Invasions of the Roman Empire
  The Goths, Invasions of the Roman Empire
The Goths were an East Germanic tribe which according to their own traditions originated in Scandinavia (specifically Götaland and Gotland). They migrated southwards and conquered parts of the Roman empire. A force of Goths launched one of the fir...
 
    The Vandals, Invading Roman Territory
  The Vandals, Invading Roman Territory
It's not known to many people today that long time ago the Vandal warriors, a Germanic tribe, once established a kingdom in North Africa as their base for raiding the Mediterranean Sea, much like the Vikings. Like the Goths and Attila's Huns, the Van...
 
    Constantine I, Founder Constantinople
  Constantine I, Founder Constantinople
Constantine I, The Great was the 57th Emperor of the Roman Empire from 306, and the sole holder of that office from 324 until his death in 337. Best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine reversed the persecutions of his prede...
 
    Saint George, and the Dragon
  Saint George, and the Dragon
Saint George was, according to tradition, a Roman soldier in the Guard of Diocletian, who is venerated as a Christian martyr. In hagiography Saint George is one of the most venerated saints in the Roman Catholic Church, Anglican Church, Eastern Ortho...
 
    The Council of Nicea, The Trinity
  The Council of Nicea, The Trinity
The Council of Nicea convened on May 20, 325 A.D. The 230 church leaders were there to consider a question vital to the church: Was Jesus Christ equal to God the Father or was he something else? Athanasius, only in his twenties, came to the council t...
 
    BYZANTINE PERIOD
  BYZANTINE PERIOD
The Byzantine Empire was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), originally known as Byzantium. Often...
 
    Theodosius the Great, Roman Emperor
  Theodosius the Great, Roman Emperor
Theodosius also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from 379 to 395. Reuniting the eastern and western portions of the empire, Theodosius was the last emperor of both the Eastern and Western Roman Empire. After his death,...
 
    Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo
  Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo
He was named the Christian bishop of Hippo (Annaba, Algeria) in 396, and devoted the remaining decades of his life to the formation of an ascetic religious community. Augustine argued against the skeptics that genuine human knowledge can be establish...
 
    Pope Leo I, The Great
  Pope Leo I, The Great
Pope Leo I or Leo the Great, was pope of the Roman Catholic Church from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461. He was a Roman aristocrat and the first Pope of the Roman Catholic Church to whom the title "the Great" was attached. He is perhaps best kn...
 
    Leo I the Thracian, Byzantine Emperor
  Leo I the Thracian, Byzantine Emperor
Flavius Valerius Leo (40118 January 474), known in English as Leo the Thracian or Leo I, was a Byzantine Emperor who ruled from 457 to 474. He was known as Magnus Thrax (the "Great Thracian") by his supporters, and Macellus ("the Butcher") by his en...
 
    Attila, King of the Huns
  Attila, King of the Huns
Attila the Hun was the Emperor of the Huns from 434 until his death in 453. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire which stretched from Germany to the Ural River and from the River Danube to the Baltic Sea. During his rule, he was one of the most fearsom...
 
    Odoacer, 1st Barbarian King of Italy
  Odoacer, 1st Barbarian King of Italy
Flavius Odoacer, was a soldier, who in 476 became the first King of Italy (476493). His reign is commonly seen as marking the end of the Western Roman Empire. Though the real power in Italy was in his hands, he represented himself as the client of J...
 
    Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostrogoths
  Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostrogoths
Theoderic the Great, often referred to as Theodoric, was king of the Germanic Ostrogoths (475526), ruler of Italy (493526), regent of the Visigoths (511526), and a patricius of the Eastern Roman Empire. His Gothic name translates into "people-king...
 
    Dionysius, Introduction 'Anno Domini'
  Dionysius, Introduction 'Anno Domini'
Dionysius Exiguus has left his mark conspicuously, for it was he who introduced the use of the Christian Era according to which dates are reckoned from the Incarnation, which he assigned to 25 March, in the year 754 from the foundation of Rome (A.U.C...
 
    MIDDLE AGES
  MIDDLE AGES
The Middle Ages was the middle period in a schematic division of European history into three 'ages': Classical civilization, the Middle Ages, and Modern Civilization. It is commonly considered as having lasted from the end of the Western Roman Empire...
 
    Justinian I, East Roman Emperor
  Justinian I, East Roman Emperor
Justinian I, commonly known as Justinian the Great, was East Roman (Byzantine) Emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the classical Roman Empire. One of the...
 
    Totila, Last King of the Ostrogoths
  Totila, Last King of the Ostrogoths
Totila was king of the Ostrogoths from 541 until his death. He waged the Gothic War against the Byzantine Empire for the mastery of Italy. Most of the historical evidence for Totila consists of chronicles by the Byzantine historian Procopius, who acc...
 
    Belisarius, Byzantine General
  Belisarius, Byzantine General
Flavius Belisarius was one of the greatest generals of the Byzantine Empire. He was instrumental to Emperor Justinian I's ambitious project of reconquering much of the old Western Roman Empire, which had been lost just under a century previously. One...
 
    Procopius of Caesarea, Byzantine Historian
  Procopius of Caesarea, Byzantine Historian
Procopius of Caesarea was a prominent Byzantine scholar from Palestine. Accompanying the general Belisarius in the wars of the Emperor Justinian I, he became the principal historian of the 6th century, writing the Wars of Justinian, the Buildings of...
 
    The Lombards invade Italy
  The Lombards invade Italy
The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, Longobards found in older English texts), were Germanic people who migrated southwards to occupy the Hungarian plains during the 6th century and entered the late Roman Empire. Pressure from the Avars caused them to...
 
       
 
         
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