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The Middle Ages was the middle period in a schematic division of European history into three 'ages': Classical civilization, the Middle Ages, and Modern Civilization. It is commonly considered as having lasted from the end of the Western Roman Empire (5th century) until the rise of national monarchies and the beginnings of demographic and economic renewal after the Black Death, European overseas exploration and the cultural revival known as the Renaissance around the 15th century as well as the Protestant Reformation starting 1517 when the Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences, known as the 95 Theses, challenged the teachings of the Church on the nature of penance, the authority of the pope and the usefulness of indulgences. They sparked a theological debate that would result in the birth of the Lutheran, Reformed and Anabaptist traditions within Christianity.

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The Middle Ages was the middle period in a schematic division of European history into three 'ages': Classical civilization, the Middle Ages, and Modern Civilization. It is commonly considered as having lasted from the end of the Western Roman Empire (5th century) until the rise of national monarchies and the beginnings of demographic and economic renewal after the Black Death, European overseas exploration and the cultural revival known as the Renaissance around the 15th century as well as the Protestant Reformation starting 1517 when the Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences, known as the 95 Theses, challenged the teachings of the Church on the nature of penance, the authority of the pope and the usefulness of indulgences. They sparked a theological debate that would result in the birth of the Lutheran, Reformed and Anabaptist traditions within Christianity. More

 
    BYZANTINE PERIOD
  BYZANTINE PERIOD
The Byzantine Empire was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), originally known as Byzantium. Often...
 
    Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo
  Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo
He was named the Christian bishop of Hippo (Annaba, Algeria) in 396, and devoted the remaining decades of his life to the formation of an ascetic religious community. Augustine argued against the skeptics that genuine human knowledge can be establish...
 
    Attila, King of the Huns
  Attila, King of the Huns
Attila the Hun was the Emperor of the Huns from 434 until his death in 453. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire which stretched from Germany to the Ural River and from the River Danube to the Baltic Sea. During his rule, he was one of the most fearsom...
 
    The Huns
  The Huns
The event which, more than any other, presaged the fall of the Roman Empire was the arrival of a group of the Huns in Eastern Europe, forcing many Germanic peoples to migrate southwards and westwards and setting off a chain reaction which could only...
 
    Odoacer, 1st Barbarian King of Italy
  Odoacer, 1st Barbarian King of Italy
Flavius Odoacer, was a soldier, who in 476 became the first King of Italy (476–493). His reign is commonly seen as marking the end of the Western Roman Empire. Though the real power in Italy was in his hands, he represented himself as the client of J...
 
    Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostrogoths
  Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostrogoths
Theoderic the Great, often referred to as Theodoric, was king of the Germanic Ostrogoths (475–526), ruler of Italy (493–526), regent of the Visigoths (511–526), and a patricius of the Eastern Roman Empire. His Gothic name translates into "people-king...
 
    Clovis, 1st King of the Franks
  Clovis, 1st King of the Franks
Clovis or Chlodowech was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the leadership from a group of royal chieftains, to rule by kings, ensuring that the kingship was held by his heirs. He was also the firs...
 
    Aryabhata, Inventor of the Digit Zero
  Aryabhata, Inventor of the Digit Zero
Aryabhata is the first of the great astronomers of the classical age of India. He was born in 476 AD in Ashmaka but later lived in Kusumapura, which his commentator Bhaskara I (629 AD) identifies with Patilputra (modern Patna). Aryabhata gave the...
 
    Saint Benedict, Founder of Western Monasticism
  Saint Benedict, Founder of Western Monasticism
Saint Benedict of Nursia is a Christian saint, honored by the Roman Catholic Church as the patron saint of Europe and students. Benedict founded twelve communities for monks at Subiaco, about 40 miles (64 km) to the east of Rome, before moving to Mon...
 
    Boethius, Roman Scholar
  Boethius, Roman Scholar
Boethius was a philosopher of the early 6th century. He was born in Rome to the ancient and prominent Anicia family, which included emperors Petronius Maximus and Olybrius and many consuls. His father, Flavius Manlius Boethius, was consul in 487 afte...
 
    The Lombards invade Italy
  The Lombards invade Italy
The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, Longobards found in older English texts), were Germanic people who migrated southwards to occupy the Hungarian plains during the 6th century and entered the late Roman Empire. Pressure from the Avars caused them to...
 
    Muhammad, Prophet of Islam
  Muhammad, Prophet of Islam
Muhammad is the central prophet of the Islamic faith. Born into a noble Quraish (Quraysh) clan, he was orphaned at an early age. He grew up to be a successful merchant, then turned contemplative; it's said that beginning when he was 40, Muhammad was...
 
    The Advenures of Beowulf
  The Advenures of Beowulf
Beowulf is an Old English epic poem consisting of 3182 alliterative lines. It may be the oldest surviving long poem in Old English and is commonly cited as one of the most important works of Old English literature. A date of composition is a matter o...
 
    Tang Dynasty
  Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty followed the Sui Dynasty and preceded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. The dynasty was interrupted by the Second Zhou Dynasty (690–705) when Empress Wu Zhao seized the throne. The dynasty was founded by the Li fam...
 
    Wu Zetian, Empress of China
  Wu Zetian, Empress of China
Wu Zetian or Empress Wu, was a Chinese sovereign, who ruled officially under the name of her self-proclaimed "Zhou dynasty", from 690 to 705. She was the only female emperor of China in more than 4,000 years. She had previous imperial positions, howe...
 
    Bede, Father of English History
  Bede, Father of English History
Bede, also referred to as Saint Bede or the Venerable Bede, was a monk at the Northumbrian monastery of Saint Peter at Monkwearmouth, today part of Sunderland, England, and of its companion monastery, Saint Paul's, in modern Jarrow (see Wearmouth-Jar...
 
    Charles Martel, The Hammer
  Charles Martel, The Hammer
Charles Martel also known as Charles the Hammer, was a Frankish military and political leader, who served as Mayor of the Palace under the Merovingian kings and ruled de facto during an interregnum (737–43) at the end of his life, using the title Duk...
 
    Pepin the Short, Father of Charlemagne
  Pepin the Short, Father of Charlemagne
Pepin the Short (or Pepin the Younger or Pepin III), was the King of the Franks from 751 to 768 and is best known for being the father of Charlemagne, or Charles the Great. He was born in 714 in Jupille, close to the city of Liège, in what is today B...
 
    Battle of Tours, Turning Point Islam
  Battle of Tours, Turning Point Islam
The Battle of Tours, often called Battle of Poitiers, was fought near the city of Tours, close to the border between the Frankish realm and the independent region of Aquitaine. The battle pitted Frankish and Burgundian forces under Austrasian Mayor o...
 
    Charlemagne, Charles I the Great
  Charlemagne, Charles I the Great
Charlemagne, meaning Charles the Great, was King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans (Imperator Romanorum) from 800 to his death in 814. He expanded the Frankish kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe...
 
    Offa, First King of the English
  Offa, First King of the English
Offa (son of Thingfrith, son of Eanulf), King of Mercia, was one of the leading figures of Saxon history. He obtained the throne of Mercia in 757, after the murder of his cousin, King Aethelbald, by Beornraed. After spending fourteen years in consoli...
 
    The Viking Age
  The Viking Age
The Viking Age is the period from 793 AD to 1066 AD in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age. It is the period of history when Scandinavian Norsemen explored Europe by its seas and ri...
 
    Pope St. Leo III, Crowned Charlemagne
  Pope St. Leo III, Crowned Charlemagne
Leo III, Saint, pope (795–816), a Roman; successor of Adrian I. He was attacked about the face and eyes by members of Adrian's family, who hoped to render him unfit for the papacy. Leo recovered and fled (799) to Charlemagne's protection at Paderborn...
 
    Invention of Gunpowder
  Invention of Gunpowder
Gunpowder, reportedly produced from saltpetre, sulphur and charcoal, is a Chinese invention. Earliest records of the formula date to the 800s. The Chinese used gunpowder to propel rockets, and to produce incendiary and explosive projectiles thrown by...
 
    Treaty of Verdun, End Empire Charlemagne
  Treaty of Verdun, End Empire Charlemagne
Verdun, Treaty of, the partition of Charlemagne's empire among three sons of Louis I, emperor of the West. Louis the German received the eastern portion (later Germany); Charles II (Charles the Bald) became king of the western portion (later France);...
 
    Simeon the Great, 1st Tsar of Bulgaria
  Simeon the Great, 1st Tsar of Bulgaria
Tsar Simeon the Great was the ruler of Bulgaria, who reigned 893 - 927. He was 27 when he took the throne from his brother Vladimir, the son of Prince Boris, who was deposed and possibly blinded by his own father after his attempt to return Bulgaria...
 
    Al-Farabi, Muslim Philosopher
  Al-Farabi, Muslim Philosopher
Al-Farabi was a renowned scientist and philosopher of the Islamic Golden Age. He was also a cosmologist, logician, and musician. Through his commentaries and treatises, Al-Farabi became well known among medieval Muslim intellectuals as "The Second...
 
    Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
  Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman emperor Otto I, called Otto the Great, was the most powerful western European ruler after Charlemagne. He organized a strong German state and expanded his authority over Burgundy and Italy. He extended the frontiers of the German kingd...
 
    Leif Ericson, 1st to sail to North America
  Leif Ericson, 1st to sail to North America
Leif Ericson was a Norse explorer known to be the first European to have landed in North America (presumably in Newfoundland, Canada). It is believed that Leif was born about 970 in Iceland, the son of Erik the Red, a Norwegian explorer and outlaw. E...
 
    Al-Biruni, Persian Mathematician
  Al-Biruni, Persian Mathematician
Abu Rayhan Biruni was a Persian mathematician, physicist, scholar, encyclopedist, philosopher, astronomer, astrologer, traveller, historian, pharmacist, and teacher, who contributed greatly to the fields of mathematics, philosophy, medicine, and scie...
 
    El Cid, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar
  El Cid, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar
Rodrigo (or Ruy) Díaz de Vivar, nicknamed El Cid Campeador, was a Castilian military and political leader in medieval Spain. Born of the minor nobility, El Cid was educated in the royal Castilian court and became an important general and administrato...
 
    Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror
  Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror
William took seven months to prepare his invasion force, using some 600 transport ships to carry around 7,000 men (including 2,000-3,000 cavalry) across the Channel. On 28 September 1066, with a favourable wind, William landed unopposed at Pevensey a...
 
    St. Bernard of Clairvaux
  St. Bernard of Clairvaux
Saint Bernard of Clairvaux was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order. "The voice of conscience, the dominating figure in the Catholic Church from 1125 to 1153", his authority helped to end the schism of 113...
 
    The Crusades
  The Crusades
The Crusades were a series of religiously-sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Latin Christian Europe, particularly the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire. The specific crusades to restore Christian control of the Holy Land were fou...
 
    Roger II, King of Sicily
  Roger II, King of Sicily
Roger II was King of Sicily, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his brother Simon. He began his rule as Count of Sicily in 1105, later became Duke of Apulia and Calabria (1127), then King of Sicily (1130). It is Roger II's distinction to have...
 
    Siege of Jerusalem, 1st Crusade
  Siege of Jerusalem, 1st Crusade
In the early 11th century, the Egyptian Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the destruction of all churches and synagogues in Jerusalem. Reports of this were one cause of the First Crusade, which marched off from Europe to the area, and, on...
 
    Kingdom of Jerusalem
  Kingdom of Jerusalem
The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 after the First Crusade. It lasted less than two hundred years, until 1291 when the last remaining outpost, Acre, was destroyed by the Mamluks. At first the kingdom wa...
 
    Afonso I, First King of Portugal
  Afonso I, First King of Portugal
Afonso I of Portugal (English Alphonzo), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques, was the first King of Portugal, declaring his independence from León. Afonso was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate da...
 
    Frederick I, Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor
  Frederick I, Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick I Barbarossa was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March, crowned King of Italy in Pavia in 1154, and finally crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155. He was crowned King of...
 
    King Richard I, The Lionheart
  King Richard I, The Lionheart
While Richard Plantagenet is revered as one of the great warrior kings of England, he is perhaps best known as "the absent king." This is due to the fact that during his reign from 1189-1199, he spent a total of six months in England. This aside Rich...
 
    Genghis Khan, Unified the Mongols
  Genghis Khan, Unified the Mongols
Genghis Khan was the founder and Great Khan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his demise. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia. After founding the Mongol...
 
    Saint Francis of Assisi, Founder Franciscans
  Saint Francis of Assisi, Founder Franciscans
Saint Francis of Assisi was an Italian Catholic friar and preacher. He founded the men's Order of Friars Minor, the women’s Order of St. Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis for men and women not able to live the lives of itinerant preachers,...
 
    Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
  Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick II of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. As such, he was King of Germany, of Italy, and of Burgundy. He was Holy Roman Emperor from his pap...
 
    Kublai Khan, Founder Yuan Dynasty
  Kublai Khan, Founder Yuan Dynasty
Kublai Khan was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Ikh Mongol Uls (Mongol Empire), reigning from 1260 to 1294, and the founder of the Yuan Dynasty, a division of the Mongol Empire. Kublai was the fourth son of Tolui and a grandson of Genghis Kha...
 
    Thomas Aquinas, Theologian and Philosopher
  Thomas Aquinas, Theologian and Philosopher
Thomas Aquinas was an Italian Dominican priest of the Catholic Church, and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism, known as Doctor Angelicus, Doctor Communis, or Doctor Universalis. He was the foremost c...
 
    Marco Polo, Travels to China
  Marco Polo, Travels to China
Marco Polo was a Christian merchant from the Venetian Republic whose travels are recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned about trading whilst his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo,...
 
    The Fall of Baghdad, Mongol Invasions
  The Fall of Baghdad, Mongol Invasions
The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sacking of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops. The Mongols were under the comma...
 
    Dante, Writer of Divina Commedia
  Dante, Writer of Divina Commedia
Durante degli Alighieri was an Italian poet, prose writer, literary theorist, moral philosopher, and political thinker. He is best known for the monumental epic poem La commedia, later named La divina commedia (Divine Comedy), considered the greatest...
 
    Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
  Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles IV, born Wenceslaus, of the House of Luxembourg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1355 until his death. He was the eldest son and heir of John the Blind, from whom he inherited Luxembourg and Bohemia on 26 August 1346. He was elected King of Germa...
 
    The Black Death in Europe
  The Black Death in Europe
Coming out of the East, the Black Death reached the shores of Italy in the spring of 1348 unleashing a rampage of death across Europe unprecedented in recorded history. By the time the epidemic played itself out three years later, anywhere between 25...
 
    RENAISSANCE
  RENAISSANCE
The Renaissance (from French: Renaissance "re-birth", Italian: Rinascimento, from rinascere "to be reborn") was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and late...
 
       
 
         
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