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RENAISSANCE

 
 
250 years

    RENAISSANCE  new window
"Renaissance," French for "rebirth," perfectly describes the intellectual and economic changes that occurred in Europe from the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries. During the era known by this name, Europe emerged from the economic stagnation of the Middle Ages and experienced a time of financial growth. Also, and perhaps most importantly, the Renaissance was an age in which artistic, social, scientific, and political thought turned in new directions.

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Medici: Godfathers of the RenaissanceEdit

 
 
"Renaissance," French for "rebirth," perfectly describes the intellectual and economic changes that occurred in Europe from the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries. During the era known by this name, Europe emerged from the economic stagnation of the Middle Ages and experienced a time of financial growth. Also, and perhaps most importantly, the Renaissance was an age in which artistic, social, scientific, and political thought turned in new directions. More new window

 
    MIDDLE AGES
  MIDDLE AGES
The Middle Ages was the middle period in a schematic division of European history into three 'ages': Classical civilization, the Middle Ages, and Modern Civilization. It is commonly considered as having lasted from the end of the Western Roman Empire...
 
    Marco Polo, Travels to China
  Marco Polo, Travels to China
Marco Polo was a Christian merchant from the Venetian Republic whose travels are recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned about trading whilst his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo,...
 
    Petrarch, Poet
  Petrarch, Poet
Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca), Italian scholar, poet, and humanist, a major force in the development of the Renaissance, famous for his poems addressed to Laura, an idealized beloved whom he met in 1327 and who died in 1348. Attempts have been made...
 
    Giovanni Boccaccio
  Giovanni Boccaccio
Giovanni Boccaccio was a Italian author and poet, the greatest of Petrarch's disciples, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poems in the vernacula...
 
    Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
  Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles IV, born Wenceslaus, of the House of Luxembourg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1355 until his death. He was the eldest son and heir of John the Blind, from whom he inherited Luxembourg and Bohemia on 26 August 1346. He was elected King of Germa...
 
    Hongwu, Founder Ming Dynasty
  Hongwu, Founder Ming Dynasty
The Hongwu Emperor, personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founder and first emperor 1368-1398 of the Ming Dynasty of China. His era name, Hongwu, means "Immensely Martial." The previous Mongol Yuan Dynasty was perceived as "foreign", and the Chinese h...
 
    The Hundred Years' War
  The Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War was a series of wars waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet, also known as the House of Anjou, for the French throne, which had become vacant upon the extinction of the senior Capetian line...
 
    Chaucer, Father of English Poetry
  Chaucer, Father of English Poetry
Geoffrey Chaucer, author, poet, philosopher, bureaucrat (courtier), and diplomat. Chaucer is best known as the author of The Canterbury Tales. He is sometimes credited with being the first author to demonstrate the artistic legitimacy of the vernacul...
 
    The Black Death in Europe
  The Black Death in Europe
Coming out of the East, the Black Death reached the shores of Italy in the spring of 1348 unleashing a rampage of death across Europe unprecedented in recorded history. By the time the epidemic played itself out three years later, anywhere between 25...
 
    Yongle, 3rd Emperor Ming Dynasty
  Yongle, 3rd Emperor Ming Dynasty
The Yongle Emperor, born Zhu Di, was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. His era name means "Perpetually Jubilant". His usurpation of the throne is now sometimes called the "Second Founding" of the Ming. He is generally...
 
    Zheng He, the Chinese Admiral
  Zheng He, the Chinese Admiral
In 1405, Zheng was chosen to lead the biggest naval expedition in history up to that time. Over the next 28 years (1405-1433), he commanded seven fleets that visited 37 countries, through Southeast Asia to faraway Africa and Arabia. In those years, C...
 
    Jeanne d'Arc ( Joan of Arc )
  Jeanne d'Arc ( Joan of Arc )
Joan of Arc, in French, Jeanne d'Arc, also called the Maid of Orleans, a patron saint of France and a national heroine, led the resistance to the English invasion of France in the Hundred Years War. When Joan was about 12 years old, she began hearing...
 
    Mehmed II, The Conqueror
  Mehmed II, The Conqueror
Mehmed II (1432-1481), nicknamed the conqueror, was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire a short time in 1444 to 1446, and from 1451 to 1481. Mehmed II brought an end to the Byzantine Empire by capturing Constantinople in 1453 (during the well-known Sieg...
 
    Columbus, Discovers America - 1492
  Columbus, Discovers America - 1492
Christopher Columbus was an explorer, colonizer, and navigator, born in the Republic of Genoa, in northwestern Italy. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general Europe...
 
    Isabella, Queen of Spain
  Isabella, Queen of Spain
Isabella I was Queen of Castile and León. She and her husband Ferdinand II of Aragon brought stability to both kingdoms that became the basis for the unification of Spain. Later the two laid the foundations for the political unification of Spain unde...
 
    Leonardo da Vinci, Renaissance Man
  Leonardo da Vinci, Renaissance Man
Leonardo da Vinci was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. His genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitom...
 
    The Fall of Constantinople
  The Fall of Constantinople
The Fall of Constantinople was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire which occurred after a siege laid by the Ottoman Empire, under the command of Sultan Mehmed II. The siege lasted from Thursday, 5 April 1453 until Tuesday, 29 May 1453...
 
    Vasco Da Gama, Sails to India - 1498
  Vasco Da Gama, Sails to India - 1498
Vasco da Gama is famous for his completion of the first all water trade route between Europe and India. Da Gama’s father, Estavao, had originally been chosen by King Joao II to make this historic voyage, but he died before he could complete the miss...
 
    Albrecht Durer
  Albrecht Durer
Albrecht Duerer was without doubt the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance. Living in Nuremberg, half-way between the Netherlands and Italy, he found inspiration in the work of painters of both the major European artistic centres of his time....
 
    Copernicus, Earth moves around the Sun
  Copernicus, Earth moves around the Sun
Nicolaus Copernicus was the first astronomer to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology, which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. His epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Sp...
 
    Michelangelo Buonarroti
  Michelangelo Buonarroti
Michelangelo Buonarroti was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the...
 
    Martin Luther
  Martin Luther
Martin Luther was a German priest and professor of theology who initiated the Protestant Reformation. Strongly disputing the claim that freedom from God's punishment of sin could be purchased with money, he confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetz...
 
    Cortés, Conqueror of Mexico - 1519
  Cortés, Conqueror of Mexico - 1519
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro, 1st Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in th...
 
    Henry VIII of England, Tudor
  Henry VIII of England, Tudor
Henry VIII was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. He was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII. He is famous for having been married six times and for wi...
 
    Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
  Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V was Holy Roman Emperor from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516-1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V ("Carlos Quinto" or "Carlos V") in Spain and Latin America. He was the son of Philip...
 
    Pope Gregory XIII, Gregorian Calendar
  Pope Gregory XIII, Gregorian Calendar
Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585). Pius V's successor was born at Bologna. He studied law at the famous university of his native city. At twenty-eight he graduated as a doctor with sufficient distinction become a professor of law in his own university. H...
 
    Frescoes Sistine Chapel, Michelangelo
  Frescoes Sistine Chapel, Michelangelo
Michelangelo was commissioned by Pope Julius II della Rovere in 1508 to repaint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel frescoed earlier by Piero Matteo d'Amelia with a star-spangled sky. The work was completed between 1508 and 1512. He painted the Last Ju...
 
    John Calvin, Theologian
  John Calvin, Theologian
John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he sudden...
 
    REFORMATION
  REFORMATION
The Protestant Reformation was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other early Protestants. Although there had been significant attempts at reform before Luther (notably those of John Wycliffe and Jan H...
 
    Philip II of Spain
  Philip II of Spain
Philip II, king of Spain and Portugal, was born at Valladolid, the only son of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V and Isabella of Portugal. Philip II, the self-proclaimed leader of Counter-Reformation, assumed the throne in 1556 with a great deal of p...
 
    Ivan the Terrible, The First Tsar
  Ivan the Terrible, The First Tsar
Ivan IV Vasilyevich, commonly known as Ivan the Terrible, was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Tsar of All the Russias from 1547 until his death. His long reign saw the conquest of the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Siberia, transf...
 
    Sir Francis Drake
  Sir Francis Drake
Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, a renowned pirate, and a politician of the Elizabethan era. Elizabeth I of England awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English f...
 
    Mary, Queen of Scots
  Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, queen of Scots was one of the most fascinating and controversial monarchs of 16th century Europe. At one time, she claimed the crowns of four nations - Scotland, France, England and Ireland. Her physical beauty and kind heart were acknowledged...
 
    Miguel de Cervantes, Creator Don Quixote
  Miguel de Cervantes, Creator Don Quixote
Miguel de Cervantes was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright. His magnum opus Don Quixote, considered the first modern novel, is a classic of Western literature, and is regarded amongst the best works of fiction ever written. His influence on the...
 
    James VI and I, King of Scots and England
  James VI and I, King of Scots and England
James VI and I was King of Scots as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the English and Scottish crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death. The kingdoms of England and Scotland were individual soverei...
 
    Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
  Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, of the house of Habsburg, ruled 1620-1637. Originally Archduke of Styria, his appointment as King of Bohemia was one of the causes of the Thirty Years' War. He was also the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire during mos...
 
    ENLIGHTENMENT
  ENLIGHTENMENT
The Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual movement in 18th-century Europe. The goal of the Enlightenment was to establish an authoritative ethics, aesthetics, and knowledge based on an "enlightened" rationality. The movement's leaders viewed thems...
 
 

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