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ENLIGHTENMENT

 
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The Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual movement in 18th-century Europe. The goal of the Enlightenment was to establish an authoritative ethics, aesthetics, and knowledge based on an "enlightened" rationality. The movement's leaders viewed themselves as a courageous, elite body of intellectuals who were leading the world toward progress, out of a long period of irrationality, superstition, and tyranny which began during a historical period they called the Dark Ages. This movement provided a framework for the American and French Revolutions, as well as the rise of capitalism and the birth of socialism. It is matched by the high baroque era in music, and the neo-classical period in the arts.

The boundaries of the Enlightenment are often thought to cover much of the 17th century as well, though others term the previous era "The Age of Reason". For the present purposes, these two eras are split, however, it is equally acceptable to think of them conjoined together as one long period.

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    REFORMATION
  REFORMATION
The Protestant Reformation was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other early Protestants. Although there had been significant attempts at reform before Luther (notably those of John Wycliffe and Jan H...
 
    John Dee, Scientist
  John Dee, Scientist
John Dee was a noted British mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, and consultant to Queen Elizabeth I. He also devoted much of his life to alchemy, divination, and Hermetic philosophy. Dee straddled the worlds of science and magic. One...
 
    Simon Stevin, Engineer
  Simon Stevin, Engineer
Born at Bruges in 1548; died at Leyden in 1620. He was for some years book-keeper in a business house at Antwerp; later he secured employment in the administration of the Franc of Bruges. After visiting Prussia, Poland, Sweden, and Norway he took up...
 
    Sir Francis Bacon
  Sir Francis Bacon
Sir Francis Bacon achieved fame as an English philosopher, statesman, and essayist. He was knighted in 1603, created Baron Verulam in 1618, and finally created Viscount St Albans in 1621; the peerage titles became extinct upon his death. He began his...
 
    Johannes Kepler, Laws Planetary Motion
  Johannes Kepler, Laws Planetary Motion
Johannes Kepler is now chiefly remembered for discovering the three laws of planetary motion that bear his name published in 1609 and 1619). He also did important work in optics (1604, 1611), discovered two new regular polyhedra (1619), gave the firs...
 
    Peter Paul Rubens
  Peter Paul Rubens
The Flemish baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens was the most renowned northern European artist of his day, and is now widely recognized as one of the foremost painters in Western art history. By completing the fusion of the realistic tradition of Flemi...
 
    Thomas Hobbes, Philosopher
  Thomas Hobbes, Philosopher
Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy. His 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory....
 
    Diego Velázquez (Velásquez)
  Diego Velázquez (Velásquez)
Velázquez (or Velásquez), Diego (1599-1660). Spain's greatest painter was also one of the supreme artists of all time. A master of technique, highly individual in style, Diego Velasquez may have had a greater influence on European art than any other...
 
    Oliver Cromwell
  Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell was an English military leader and politician. After leading the rebellion against the British monarchy (Charles I), he ruled England, Scotland, and Ireland as a semi-autocratic Lord Protector, from December 16, 1653 until his death,...
 
    Baroque Music
  Baroque Music
The English word baroque is derived from the Italian barocco, meaning bizarre, though probably exuberant would be a better translation more accurately reflecting the sense. The usage of this term originated in the 1860s to describe the highly decorat...
 
    Stuyvesant, Governor New York - 1646
  Stuyvesant, Governor New York - 1646
Peter Stuyvesant, Dutch Governor of New York (the New Netherlands). Born in Holland in 1602; died in New York city in August, 1672. He was the son of a clergyman of Friesland, and at an early age displayed a fondness for military life. He served in t...
 
    Abel Tasman, Tasmania and New Zealand
  Abel Tasman, Tasmania and New Zealand
Abel Janszoon Tasman was a Dutch seafarer and explorer best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644, in the service of the VOC (Dutch East India Company). His was the first European expedition to reach the islands of Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) a...
 
    Rembrandt Van Rijn
  Rembrandt Van Rijn
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art history and the most important in Dutch history. His contributions to art came in a period of great...
 
    Blaise Pascal, Inventing a Calculator
  Blaise Pascal, Inventing a Calculator
Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic philosopher. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen. Pascal's earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he m...
 
    Giovanni Cassini, Astronomer
  Giovanni Cassini, Astronomer
Giovanni Domenico Cassini studied mathematics and astronomy at the Jesuits and became professor of astronomy at Bologna, as well as fortress builder, at age 25. There, he determined the obliquity of the ecliptic at 23 deg 29' and studied the effects...
 
    Christiaan Huygens, Dutch Scientist
  Christiaan Huygens, Dutch Scientist
Christiaan Huygens came from an important Dutch family. Huygens's first publications in 1651 and 1654 considered mathematical problems. The 1651 publication Cyclometriae showed the fallacy in methods proposed by Gregory of Saint-Vincent, who had clai...
 
    Baruch Spinoza, Dutch Philosopher
  Baruch Spinoza, Dutch Philosopher
Baruch de Spinoza and later Benedict de Spinoza (in all mentioned languages the given name means "the Blessed") was a Dutch Jewish philosopher. Revealing considerable scientific aptitude, the breadth and importance of Spinoza's work was not fully rea...
 
    John Locke
  John Locke
John Locke was a British philosopher, Oxford academic and medical researcher, whose association with Anthony Ashley Cooper (later the First Earl of Shaftesbury) led him to become successively a government official charged with collecting information...
 
    Robert Hooke, Natural Philosopher
  Robert Hooke, Natural Philosopher
Robert Hooke - natural philosopher, inventor, architect, chemist, mathematician, physicist, engineer. Robert Hooke is one of the most neglected natural philosophers of all time. The inventor of, amongst other things, the iris diaphragm in cameras, th...
 
    Pierre Bayle, Philosopher
  Pierre Bayle, Philosopher
Pierre Bayle was a French philosopher and writer best known for his seminal work the Historical and Critical Dictionary, published beginning in 1695. Bayle was a self-pronounced Protestant and as a fideist he advocated a separation between the sphere...
 
    William III of Orange, King of England
  William III of Orange, King of England
William III (Dutch: Willem III) was a sovereign Prince of Orange by birth. From 1672 he governed as Stadtholder William III of Orange (Dutch: Willem III van Oranje) over Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel of the Dutch Republic. From...
 
    Peter the Great, Emperor of Russia
  Peter the Great, Emperor of Russia
Peter I the Great ruled Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May [O.S. 27 April] 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly half-brother, Ivan V. He carried out a policy of modernization and expansion that transfo...
 
    Antonio Vivaldi
  Antonio Vivaldi
Although Antonio Vivaldi is well known for his instrumental music, he was also very much engaged with vocal music. His earliest known opera was given in Vicenza in 1713. His father was a professional violinist who played at St. Marks. Vivaldi often t...
 
    Tragedy of the Dodo, Mauritius
  Tragedy of the Dodo, Mauritius
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    Glorious Revolution, William of Orange
  Glorious Revolution, William of Orange
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, is the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (...
 
    Voltaire, Author and Philosopher
  Voltaire, Author and Philosopher
François-Marie Arouet, better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer and philosopher famous for his wit and for his advocacy of civil liberties, including freedom of religion and free trade. Voltaire was a prolific writer...
 
    Captain James Cook
  Captain James Cook
Captain James Cook was a British explorer, navigator and cartographer, ultimately rising to the rank of Captain in the Royal Navy. Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean during which he achieved the...
 
    INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
The Industrial Revolution was a period of the 18th century marked by social and technological change in which manufacturing began to rely on steam power, fueled primarily by coal, rather than on animal labor, or on water or wind power; and by a shift...
 
         



 
 
         
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