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    REFORMATION  new window
The Protestant Reformation was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other early Protestants. Although there had been significant attempts at reform before Luther (notably those of John Wycliffe and Jan Huss), the date most usually given for the start of the Protestant Reformation is 1517, when Luther published The Ninety-Five Theses, and for its conclusion in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia that ended the European wars of religion. Luther started by criticising the relatively recent practice of selling indulgences, but the debate widened until it touched on many of the doctrines and devotional practices of the Catholic Church.

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The Protestant Reformation was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other early Protestants. Although there had been significant attempts at reform before Luther (notably those of John Wycliffe and Jan Huss), the date most usually given for the start of the Protestant Reformation is 1517, when Luther published The Ninety-Five Theses, and for its conclusion in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia that ended the European wars of religion. Luther started by criticising the relatively recent practice of selling indulgences, but the debate widened until it touched on many of the doctrines and devotional practices of the Catholic Church. More new window

 
    John Wycliffe, Precursor of Reformation
  John Wycliffe, Precursor of Reformation
The first hand-written English language Bible manuscripts were produced in 1380's AD by John Wycliffe, an Oxford professor, scholar, and theologian. Wycliffe, (also spelled “Wycliff” & “Wyclif”), was well-known throughout Europe for his opposition to...
 
    RENAISSANCE
  RENAISSANCE
The Renaissance (from French: Renaissance "re-birth", Italian: Rinascimento, from rinascere "to be reborn") was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and late...
 
    John Hus, Religious Reformer
  John Hus, Religious Reformer
John Hus (Jan Huss) was a religious thinker and reformer, born in Southern Bohemia in 1369. He initiated a reform movement based on the ideas of John Wycliffe. His followers became known as Hussites. The Catholic Church did not condone such uprisings...
 
    Pope Leo X
  Pope Leo X
Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. The second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, ruler of the Florentine Republic, he was elevated to the cardinalate in 1489. He is probably best remember...
 
    Martin Luther, Initiator Protestant Reformation
  Martin Luther, Initiator Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther was a German priest and professor of theology who initiated the Protestant Reformation. Strongly disputing the claim that freedom from God's punishment of sin could be purchased with money, he confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetz...
 
    Ulrich Zwingli, Reformer
  Ulrich Zwingli, Reformer
Ulrich Zwingli was a leader of the Swiss Reformation. While Germany struggled under the political and religious consequences of Luther's reform movement, the movement itself quickly spilled out of the German borders into neighboring Switzerland. At t...
 
    Henry VIII of England, Tudor
  Henry VIII of England, Tudor
Henry VIII was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. He was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII. He is famous for having been married six times and for wi...
 
    Ignatius of Loyola, Founder Jesuits
  Ignatius of Loyola, Founder Jesuits
Saint Ignatius of Loyola, also known as Ignacio López de Loyola, was the principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious order of the Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope in terms of mission. Members...
 
    Menno Simons, Leader Mennonites
  Menno Simons, Leader Mennonites
Menno Simons is without doubt the greatest figure in the history of the Mennonite Church. He was not the founder but is often called the regenerator of the Anabaptist movement. He certainly was its most important leader in the Netherlands during the...
 
    Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
  Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V was Holy Roman Emperor from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516-1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V ("Carlos Quinto" or "Carlos V") in Spain and Latin America. He was the son of Philip...
 
    John Calvin, Theologian
  John Calvin, Theologian
John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he sudden...
 
    John of Leiden, King of Münster
  John of Leiden, King of Münster
John of Leiden was an Anabaptist leader from the Dutch city of Leiden. Raised in poverty, young John became a charismatic leader who was widely revered by his followers. According to his own testimony, he went to the German city of Münster, arriving...
 
    Index Librorum Prohibitorum
  Index Librorum Prohibitorum
The principle of a list of forbidden books was adopted at the Fifth Lateran Council in 1515, then confirmed by the Council of Trent in 1546. The first edition of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, dated 1557 was published by Pope Paul IV. The 32nd ed...
 
    The Ninety-Five Theses, Martin Luther
  The Ninety-Five Theses, Martin Luther
The Ninety-Five Theses (original Latin: Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum) were written by Martin Luther in 1517 and are widely regarded as the initial catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. The disputation protests against cleric...
 
    Philip II of Spain
  Philip II of Spain
Philip II, king of Spain and Portugal, was born at Valladolid, the only son of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V and Isabella of Portugal. Philip II, the self-proclaimed leader of Counter-Reformation, assumed the throne in 1556 with a great deal of p...
 
    Elizabeth I, Queen of England
  Elizabeth I, Queen of England
Elizabeth I was born in 1533 to Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Although she entertained many marriage proposals and flirted incessantly, she never married or had children. Elizabeth, the last of the Tudors, died at seventy years of age after a very succ...
 
    William of Orange, The Silent
  William of Orange, The Silent
William I, Prince of Orange, also widely known as William the Silent (Dutch: Willem de Zwijger), or simply William of Orange (Dutch: Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years' War a...
 
    The Council of Trent
  The Council of Trent
The Council of Trent is reckoned by the Roman Catholic Church to be the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the universal church. It was held from December 13, 1545, to December 4, 1563 in the Italian city of Trent. Although called an Ecumenical Council...
 
    The Eighty Years' War, Dutch Revolt
  The Eighty Years' War, Dutch Revolt
In Dutch language, the Dutch Revolt is referred to as the Tachtigjarige Oorlog (80 Years' War). While the Revolt, as a countrywide movement, only broke out in 1579, it has local predecessors which reach back until 1566. The preconditions leading to t...
 
    ENLIGHTENMENT, The Age of Reason
  ENLIGHTENMENT, The Age of Reason
The Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual movement in 18th-century Europe. The goal of the Enlightenment was to establish an authoritative ethics, aesthetics, and knowledge based on an "enlightened" rationality. The movement's leaders viewed thems...
 
    The Thirty Years' War
  The Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War, series of European conflicts lasting from 1618 to 1648, involving most of the countries of western Europe, and fought mainly in Germany. At first the struggle was primarily based on the profound religious antagonism engendered amon...
 
       
         



 
 
         
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