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70 years

    Elizabeth I, Queen of England  new window
Elizabeth I was born in 1533 to Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Although she entertained many marriage proposals and flirted incessantly, she never married or had children. Elizabeth, the last of the Tudors, died at seventy years of age after a very successful forty-four year reign (1558-1603 AD). Elizabeth inherited a tattered realm: dissension between Catholics and Protestants tore at the very foundation of society; the royal treasury had been bled dry by Mary and her advisors, Mary's loss of Calais left England with no continental possessions for the first time since the arrival of the Normans in 1066 and many (mainly Catholics) doubted Elizabeth's claim to the throne. Continental affairs added to the problems - France had a strong footland in Scotland, and Spain, the strongest western nation at the time, posed a threat to the security of the realm. Elizabeth proved most calm and calculating (even though she had a horrendous temper) in her political acumen, employing capable and distinguished men to carrying out royal prerogative.

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Elizabeth I was born in 1533 to Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Although she entertained many marriage proposals and flirted incessantly, she never married or had children. Elizabeth, the last of the Tudors, died at seventy years of age after a very successful forty-four year reign (1558-1603 AD). Elizabeth inherited a tattered realm: dissension between Catholics and Protestants tore at the very foundation of society; the royal treasury had been bled dry by Mary and her advisors, Mary's loss of Calais left England with no continental possessions for the first time since the arrival of the Normans in 1066 and many (mainly Catholics) doubted Elizabeth's claim to the throne. Continental affairs added to the problems - France had a strong footland in Scotland, and Spain, the strongest western nation at the time, posed a threat to the security of the realm. Elizabeth proved most calm and calculating (even though she had a horrendous temper) in her political acumen, employing capable and distinguished men to carrying out royal prerogative. More new window

 
    RENAISSANCE
  RENAISSANCE
The Renaissance (from French: Renaissance "re-birth", Italian: Rinascimento, from rinascere "to be reborn") was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and late...
 
    Henry VIII of England, Tudor
  Henry VIII of England, Tudor
Henry VIII was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. He was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII. He is famous for having been married six times and for wi...
 
    Anne Boleyn, Henry VIIIís 2nd wife
  Anne Boleyn, Henry VIIIís 2nd wife
Anne Boleyn, Marchioness of Pembroke and Queen Consort of England (1505/1507 Ė May 19, 1536) was the second (of the six) wife and queen consort of Henry VIII and the mother of Elizabeth I of England who would become Queen. Born into the English arist...
 
    Queen Mary I, Daughter of Henry VIII
  Queen Mary I, Daughter of Henry VIII
Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, was born in 1516 and suffered through a terrible childhood of neglect, intolerance, and ill-health. She was a staunch catholic from birth, constantly resisting pressure from others to renounce h...
 
    REFORMATION
  REFORMATION
The Protestant Reformation was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other early Protestants. Although there had been significant attempts at reform before Luther (notably those of John Wycliffe and Jan H...
 
    Henry II, King of France
  Henry II, King of France
Henry II was King of France from 31 March 1547, until his death in 1559. Henry was born in the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, the son of Francis I and Claude, Duchess of Brittany (daughter of Louis XII of France and Anne, Duchess...
 
    William Cecil, Advisor of Elizabeth I
  William Cecil, Advisor of Elizabeth I
William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley was an English statesman, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign, twice Secretary of State (1550Ė1553 and 1558Ė1572) and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. He was the founder of the Cecil dynasty wh...
 
    Philip II of Spain
  Philip II of Spain
Philip II, king of Spain and Portugal, was born at Valladolid, the only son of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V and Isabella of Portugal. Philip II, the self-proclaimed leader of Counter-Reformation, assumed the throne in 1556 with a great deal of p...
 
    John Dee, Scientist
  John Dee, Scientist
John Dee was a noted British mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, and consultant to Queen Elizabeth I. He also devoted much of his life to alchemy, divination, and Hermetic philosophy. Dee straddled the worlds of science and magic. One...
 
    Act of Supremacy, Church of England
  Act of Supremacy, Church of England
The first Act of Supremacy was a piece of legislation that granted King Henry VIII of England Royal Supremacy, which means that he was declared the supreme head of the Church of England. It is still the legal authority of the Sovereign of the United...
 
    Frobisher, Search Northwest Passage
  Frobisher, Search Northwest Passage
Sir Martin Frobisher was an English seaman who made three voyages to the New World to look for the Northwest Passage. All landed in northeastern Canada, around today's Resolution Island and Frobisher Bay. On his second voyage, Frobisher found what he...
 
    Edward VI of England
  Edward VI of England
Edward VI became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Ireland on 28 January 1547, at just nine years of age. Edward, the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, was the third monarch of the Tu...
 
    Sir Francis Drake, English Captain, Navigator, Pirate
  Sir Francis Drake, English Captain, Navigator, Pirate
Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, a renowned pirate, and a politician of the Elizabethan era. Elizabeth I of England awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English f...
 
    William Byrd, English Composer
  William Byrd, English Composer
English composer, organist at Lincoln Cathedral and, jointly with Tallis, at the Chapel Royal. Although Roman Catholic, he composed anthems and services for the English Church in addition to his great Roman masses and Latin motets. He was esteemed by...
 
    Mary, Queen of Scots
  Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, queen of Scots was one of the most fascinating and controversial monarchs of 16th century Europe. At one time, she claimed the crowns of four nations - Scotland, France, England and Ireland. Her physical beauty and kind heart were acknowledged...
 
    William Gilbert, Pioneer Electricity
  William Gilbert, Pioneer Electricity
William Gilbert, also known as Gilberd, was an English physician, physicist and natural philosopher. He was an early Copernican, and passionately rejected both the prevailing Aristotelian philosophy and the Scholastic method of university teaching. H...
 
    Edward Coke, Greatest Elizabethan Jurist
  Edward Coke, Greatest Elizabethan Jurist
Sir Edward Coke was an English barrister, judge and politician considered to be the greatest jurist of the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. Coke is best known in modern times for his Institutes, described by John Rutledge as "almost the foundations of...
 
    Sir Walter Raleigh, Writer and Explorer
  Sir Walter Raleigh, Writer and Explorer
Sir Walter Raleigh was an English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, courtier, spy, and explorer. He is also well known for popularising tobacco in England. He rose rapidly in the favour of Queen Elizabeth I, and was knighted in 1585. He was invo...
 
    Lancaster, 1st East India Company Fleet
  Lancaster, 1st East India Company Fleet
Sir James Lancaster was a prominent Elizabethan trader and privateer. Lancaster came from Basingstoke in Hampshire. In his early life, he was a soldier and a trader in Portugal. On the 10th of April 1591 he started from Torbay in Devon, with Raymond...
 
    Thomas Cavendish, The Navigator
  Thomas Cavendish, The Navigator
Sir Thomas Cavendish was an English explorer and a privateer known as "The Navigator" because he was the first who deliberately tried to emulate Sir Francis Drake and raid the Spanish towns and ships in the Pacific and return by circumnavigating the...
 
    Sir Francis Bacon, English philosopher
  Sir Francis Bacon, English philosopher
Sir Francis Bacon achieved fame as an English philosopher, statesman, and essayist. He was knighted in 1603, created Baron Verulam in 1618, and finally created Viscount St Albans in 1621; the peerage titles became extinct upon his death. He began his...
 
    Shakespeare, England's National Poet
  Shakespeare, England's National Poet
William Shakespeare was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". His extant works,...
 
    Robert Devereux, Favourite of Elizabeth
  Robert Devereux, Favourite of Elizabeth
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, was an English nobleman and a favourite of Elizabeth I. Politically ambitious, and a committed general, he was placed under house arrest following a poor campaign in Ireland during the Nine Years' War in 1599. In 1...
 
    James VI and I, King of Scots and England
  James VI and I, King of Scots and England
James VI and I was King of Scots as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the English and Scottish crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death. The kingdoms of England and Scotland were individual soverei...
 
    The Gregorian Calendar
  The Gregorian Calendar
The calendar used throughout the world today is the Gregorian calendar. It is sometimes called a "Christian" calendar. The Gregorian calendar is the one commonly used today. It was proposed by Aloysius Lilius, a physician from Naples, and adopted by...
 
    ENLIGHTENMENT, The Age of Reason
  ENLIGHTENMENT, The Age of Reason
The Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual movement in 18th-century Europe. The goal of the Enlightenment was to establish an authoritative ethics, aesthetics, and knowledge based on an "enlightened" rationality. The movement's leaders viewed thems...
 
       
         



 
 
         
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